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Margarine Formula

Views: 23     Author: www.sino-votator.com     Publish Time: 2021-08-26      Origin: www.sino-votator.com

1. 基料油 Basic oil

一般基料油由几种液态油和固脂组成。具备特定的熔点和SFC

General base oil is composited by several liquid oil and solid fat.  It has a specific melting point and SFC.  

基料油以β′结晶习性的话,比较适合作为基料油。牛油、24℃棕榈液油是β′结晶习性,52度棕榈油在适合条件下会以β′结晶。

Base oil with β 'crystal habit is more suitable as a base oil.  Butter and 24℃ palm oil have β 'crystallization habit, and 52 ℃ palm oil will crystallize β' under suitable conditions.  

基料油选择还会考虑成本因素和供应稳定性因素。

Base oil selection also takes into account cost and supply stability factors.

2. 乳化剂Emulsifying agent

众所周知油、水是不相溶的,而我们的人造奶油是由油和水为主要原料生产的,二者之所以能很好的结合则是乳化剂的乳化作用所致。乳化剂还可以增强烘培产品的功能性。加入面中后具备调节粘性、发泡、增强口感、乳化油脂、延缓结晶等左右。

It is well known that oil and water are insoluble, and our margarine is produced by oil and water as the main raw materials, the reason why the two can be well combined is caused by the emulsification of emulsifying agent.  Emulsifiers can also enhance the functionality of baked products.  It can adjust viscosity, foaming, enhance taste, emulsify oil, delay crystallization and so on.  

常用的乳化剂有以下几种:

Commonly used emulsifiers are as follows:

单、双甘油脂肪酸酯(单硬脂酸甘油酯)C-10

Mono-diglycerides (glycerides monostearate) C-10  

单甘酯是目前应用最广泛的乳化剂,是由甘油和油脂反应制得。产品有粉状、颗粒状或糊状,熔点:65-70℃。按其纯度可分为蒸馏单甘酯(纯度4050%)和未蒸馏单甘酯(纯度90%以上)。不溶于水,可溶于油脂(80℃以上)。贮存时注意密封保存。

Monoglycerides are widely used emulsifiers and are prepared by the reaction of glycerol and oil. Products are powdery, granular or paste, melting point: 65-70℃.  According to its purity, it can be divided into distilled monoglycerides (purity 40-50%) and undistilled monoglycerides (purity more than 90%).  Insoluble in water, soluble in oil (above 80℃).  Pay attention to seal storage.  

卵磷脂 Lecithin.

大豆磷脂是大豆水化脱胶的副产品不溶于水,有较好的油溶性及乳化性,是良好的天然乳化剂。卵磷脂添加到人造奶油或起酥油中可增强稳定性,增加食品风味,还可防止烹调时溅油,贮存时应遮光、密封。

Soybean phospholipid is a by-product of soybean hydration and degumming, insoluble in water, with good oil solubility and emulsification, is a good natural emulsifier.  Lecithin is added to margarine or shortening to enhance stability, flavor, and prevent oil splashes during cooking. Storage should be shaded and sealed.  

格林斯顿PS201 Greinston PS201

含有高饱和的单甘脂,由植物油制备。优势是用于防止油从产品中离析。熔点:62℃

High saturated mono - glycerin, prepared from vegetable oil.  The advantage is to prevent oil segregation from the product.  Melting point: 62℃.  

3. 抗氧化剂 Antioxidant

氧化是导致人造奶油、起酥油品质劣化的重要因素,防止氧化,除了考虑选用原料、加工方法、包装及贮存条件外,还可添加一些安全性高、效果显著的抗氧化剂。抗氧化剂的效果与油脂的种类、精炼程度、FFA的含量、铜铁离子、水分、光线、接触空气及温度有关。常用的抗氧化剂如下:

Oxidation is an important factor leading to the deterioration of the quality of margarine and shortening. To prevent oxidation, some antioxidants with high safety and remarkable effect can be added in addition to the selection of raw materials, processing methods, packaging and storage conditions.  The effect of antioxidant is related to the type of oil, degree of refining, FFA content, copper and iron ions, moisture, light, exposure to air and temperature.  Common antioxidants are as follows:  

BHA (丁基羟基茴香醚)

白色或微黄色蜡状结晶粉末,有特异的酚类臭味和刺激性气味,熔点5765℃,不溶于水,25℃油中溶解度3040%,热稳定性好,弱碱下不易被破坏,可用与培烤食品,抗菌能力强。BHA和其它抗氧化剂混合使用,或与增效剂柠檬酸并用,抗氧化效果更好。油脂中最大用量0.2g/Kg, 人造奶油中0.1g/Kg

White or light yellow waxy crystalline powder, with special phenolic odor and irritating odor, melting point 57-65℃, insoluble in water, 25℃ oil solubility 30-40%, good thermal stability, not easy to be destroyed under weak base, can be used with baking food, strong antibacterial ability.  BHA is more effective when used in combination with other antioxidants or with citric acid, a synergist.  The maximum amount of oil is 0.2g/Kg, and the maximum amount of margarine is 0.1g/Kg.  

BHT(丁二基羟基甲苯)

白色结晶或粉末,无味,无臭,熔点69.570.5℃,沸点265℃,不溶于水,25℃豆油中可溶30%、棉油中20%,40℃猪油中40%,热稳定性好,具升华性,无BHA的异臭,价格低廉,毒性相对BHA高,抗氧化能力强.油脂中最大用量0.2g/Kg,人造奶油中0.1g/Kg,BHA、柠檬酸合用以“BHTBHA:柠檬酸=221”比例为佳。

TBHQ〔特丁基对苯二酚)

一种新型抗氧化剂,抗氧化效果比BHABHT好,最大特点Fe离子存在下不着色。TBHQ添加到油中不会产生异味或异臭,油溶性良好,熔点126.5128.5℃,可单独使用,也可与BHTBHA混用,油中最大添加量0.02%。

White crystal or powder, tasteless, odorless, melting point 69.5-70.5℃, boiling point 265℃, insoluble in water, soluble 30% in 25℃ soybean oil, 20% in cotton oil, 40% in 40℃ lard, good thermal stability, sublimation, no BHA odor, low price, high toxicity relative to BHA, strong antioxidant capacity.  The maximum amount of oil is 0.2g/Kg, and the maximum amount of margarine is 0.1g/Kg. The ratio of BHT: BHA: citric acid = 2:2:1 is the best when used together with BHA and citric acid.  

增效剂---柠檬酸 Synergist -- citric acid

两种或两种以上抗氧化剂混合使用,或与增效剂并用,往往比单独一种使用效果显著,此种现象称为增效作用。在植物油中使用酚型抗氧化剂,若同时添加柠檬酸,其抗氧化效果将显著提高。一般认为柠檬酸能和促进氧化反应的微量金属离子(Cu2+Fe3+)生成螯合物,从而对促进氧化的金属离子起钝化作用。增效剂的用量一般是酚型抗氧化剂的1/41/2

Synergism occurs when two or more antioxidants are used in combination or in combination with a synergist, which is often more effective than either antioxidant alone.  When phenolic antioxidant is used in vegetable oil, its antioxidant effect will be significantly increased if citric acid is added.  It is generally believed that citric acid can form chelates with trace metal ions (Cu2+, Fe3+) that promote oxidation reaction, thus passivating metal ions that promote oxidation.  The dosage of synergist is generally 1/4-1/2 of phenolic antioxidants.  

4. 防腐剂  Preservatives

人造奶油中的水,尤其是水相中的一些物质(如乳清粉),特别容易引起微生物的繁殖和生长。防腐剂则是具有杀死微生物或抑制微生物繁殖的物质。

Water in margarine, especially substances in the aqueous phase (e.g. whey powder), are particularly susceptible to microbial reproduction and growth.  Preservatives are substances that kill microorganisms or inhibit their reproduction.  

 Salt

盐既是调味剂又是优良的防腐剂,盐的贮存要注意防止受污染和防潮。

Salt is not only a flavoring agent but also an excellent preservative. Salt should be stored to prevent contamination and moisture.  

山梨酸钾 Potassium sorbate

无色或白色鳞片状结晶或粉末,无臭或稍有臭味,在空气中不稳定,可被氧化着色,有吸湿性,易溶于水,对霉菌、酵母及好气性菌均有抑制作用,属酸性防腐剂,宜在PH56以下范围内使用。贮存时注意防潮、密封。

Colorless or white scaly crystals or powder, odorless or slightly smelly, unstable in the air, can be oxidized color, hymoisture absorption, easily soluble in water, mold, yeast and good gas bacteria have inhibitory effect, is an acidic preservative, suitable for use in the range of PH 5-6.  Pay attention to moistureproof and seal when storing.  

脱氢乙酸钠:Sodium Dehydroacetate

对霉菌、酵母菌、细菌具有很好的抑制作用,广泛地应用与饮料、食品、饲料的加工业,延长其存放期,避免霉变损失。

It has a good inhibitory effect on mold, yeast and bacteria, and is widely used in beverage, food and feed processing industry to prolong its storage period and avoid mildew loss.  

5. 色素 pigment  

β-胡萝卜素 Beta-carotene 

 β-胡萝卜素为理想的天然色素,具价格低、有营养、色调稳定等优点。红紫色至暗红色的结晶粉末,稍有异臭,不溶于水和甘油,难溶于乙醇、丙酮,240℃在植物油中溶解度为0.050.10%β-胡萝卜素对光和氧均不稳定,遇重金属离子(如Fe3+)颜色变浅。贮存时要置于阴凉处,并注意遮光、密闭。

Beta carotene is the ideal natural pigment, with low price, nutrition, color stability and other advantages.  Reddish purple to dark red crystalline powder, slightly heterosmelly, insoluble in water and glycerin, insoluble in ethanol, acetone, 240℃ in vegetable oil solubility 0.05-0.10%.  β -carotene is unstable to both light and oxygen and lightens in response to heavy metal ions such as Fe3+.  Storage should be placed in a cool place, and pay attention to shading, airtight.  

柠檬黄 Lemon Yellow

橙黄色粉末,无臭,0.1%水溶液呈黄色,不溶于油脂,耐热性、耐酸性、耐盐性均好,耐氧性、耐碱性差,遇碱变红色。贮存注意事项同胭脂红。风味添加剂 

• Orange yellow powder, odorless, 0.1% aqueous solution is yellow, insoluble in oil, heat resistance, acid resistance, salt resistance are good, poor oxygen resistance, alkali resistance, red when alkali.  Storage precautions with carmine.  Flavor additive  

6. 风味添加剂 Flavor additive  

香精 Essence

食用香精是用各种安全性高的香料和稀释剂等调和而成,可分为油溶性和水溶性两大类。大多以澄清、透明液存在,但以精炼植物油为稀释剂的油溶性香精低温时会出现冷凝现象。所有香精都有一定的挥发性,贮存时要注意置于阴凉处(1030℃为宜),并注意防晒、防潮、防火。香精启封后,不宜继续贮存,尽量用完。

 热敏挥发性物料,使用时注意投入时间,并要注意使其在物料中均匀分布。

Edible flavors are blended with a variety of safe flavors and thinners, which can be divided into oil-soluble and water-soluble categories.  Most of them exist in clear and transparent liquid, but oil soluble essence with refined vegetable oil as diluent will condense at low temperature.  All flavors have a certain volatility, storage should pay attention to be placed in the shade (10-30℃ is appropriate), and pay attention to sunscreen, moisture-proof, fire prevention.  Flavor unsealed, should not continue to store, best use up.  

Thermal volatile materials, pay attention to the use of time, and pay attention to make it evenly distributed in the material.  

乳脂/炼乳 Milk fat/condensed milk

为了增加人造奶油的营养和风味而添加。低温、阴凉、干燥处存放。

Added to add nutrients and flavor to margarine.  Store in low temperature, cool and dry place  


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