Feasibility report on application scope and development prospect of special oils and fats
Section 1 Introduction to special oils and fats
Special oil like margarine, have more than a hundred years of history from the invention. In the late 19th century, during the Franco-Prussian War, Napoleon III of France offered a bounty to recruit a substitute for the cream that was in short supply in Europe. Meggie, French chemist. The cream oil made by Mullis in 1869 was patented in France and England. As the new product resembles butter in both its composition and appearance, it is called “Margarine,” as well as “margarine,” which is a transliteration of the English word margarine. (Feasibility study report)
Section 2 Production technology of special oils and fats
1．人造奶油生产工艺 Process of margarine
Oil phase + water phase→Emulsification→Pasteurizing→Quenching→Kneading→Margarine
2．起酥油生产工艺 Process of shortening
3．代可可脂生产工艺 Process of cocoa butter replacer
Hydrogenation base oil→Quenching→Kneading→Cocoa butter replacer
Emulsification tank (margarine & shortening), HP pump, votator, pin rotor machine, back pressure valve, rest tube (table margarine)
第三节 特种油脂的应用范围 Application of special oil
（一）乳化剂 Emulsifying agent
As we all know, oil and water are insoluble, and our margarine is produced by oil and water as the main raw materials, the two can be very good combination is caused by the emulsification of emulsifier. Commonly used emulsifiers are as follows:
Monoglyceride is the most widely used emulsifier, which is prepared by the reaction of glycerol and oil. Products in powder, granular or paste, according to its purity can be divided into distilled monoglyceride (purity 40-50%) and undistilled monoglyceride (purity more than 90%). Insoluble in water, soluble in grease (above 80℃). Keep it sealed when storing.
Lecithin was originally derived from egg yolks, but because of its high cost and perishable nature, soy lecithin was used instead in production. Soybean phospholipid is a by-product of soybean hydration degumming. Its main components are lecithin, lecithin and inositol phospholipid. A translucent viscous liquid that turns yellow quickly in air or light and becomes an opaque brown. Insoluble in water, good oil solubility and emulsification, is a good natural emulsifier. Lecithin added to margarine or shortening can enhance stability, increase food flavor, but also to prevent oil splashing during cooking, storage should be shading, sealed.
3．蔗糖酯 Sucrose ester
Sucrose ester is a kind of efficient and safe surfactant, prepared by the reaction of sucrose and fatty acid, soluble in water, but not soluble in oil, stable at 120℃, will decompose above 145℃. Sucrose ester and monoglyceride can be used as emulsifier of margarine, which has anti-aging effect on bread and cake.
4．SPAN（司盘 /失水山梨醇脂肪酸酯Sorbitol fatty acid ester）
Sorbitol fatty acid ester is a kind of substance prepared by the reaction of sorbitol and fatty acid, among which SPAN60 and SPAN65 are commonly used by our company. The melting point of SPAN60 is 52-54℃, the acid value is 5-10, and the acid value of SPAN65 is 55-57℃ and 12-15 respectively, and the iodine value of both is less than 2. White or yellowish white, good thermal stability, difficult to dissolve in water, easy to dissolve in oil when heated. The most important characteristic is to stabilize the grease structure, which can make the grease stable in β ‘crystal structure after quenching.
Oxidation is an important factor leading to the deterioration of the quality of margarine and shortening. To prevent oxidation, in addition to considering the selection of raw materials, processing methods, packaging and storage conditions, some safe and effective antioxidants can also be added. The effect of antioxidants depends on the type of oil, degree of refining, FFA content, copper and iron ions, moisture, light, exposure to air, and temperature. Our commonly used antioxidants are as follows:
White or yellowish waxy crystalline powder, with special phenolic odor and pungent odor, melting point 57-65℃, insoluble in water, 25℃ oil solubility 30-40%, good thermal stability, weak alkali is not easy to be destroyed, can be used with baking food, strong antibacterial ability. BHA is even more effective when used in combination with other antioxidants or with citric acid, a synergist. The maximum dosage is 0.2g/Kg in grease and 0.1g/Kg in margarine.
White crystal or powder, tasteless, odorless, melting point 69.5-70.5℃, boiling point 265℃, insoluble in water, 25℃ soybean oil soluble 30%, cotton oil 20%, 40℃ lard 40%, good thermal stability, sublimation, no BHA heteroodor, low price, toxicity relative to BHA high antioxidant ability. The maximum dosage of fat is 0.2g/Kg, margarine is 0.1g/Kg, and the ratio of BHT: BHA: citric acid = 2:2:1 is the best when combined with BHA and citric acid.
A new type of antioxidant, the antioxidant effect is better than BHA, BHT, the biggest characteristic of Fe ion in the presence of no coloring. TBHQ will not produce odor or heteroodor when added to oil, and the oil has good solubility. The melting point is 126.5-128.5℃. It can be used alone or mixed with BHT and BHA, and the maximum added amount in oil is 0.02%.
（三）增效剂—柠檬酸 Synergist-citric acid
A combination of two or more antioxidants, or a synergist, is often more effective than one alone, a phenomenon known as synergism. If citric acid is added to vegetable oil, the antioxidant effect of phenolic antioxidants will be significantly improved. It is generally believed that citric acid can form chelates with trace metal ions (Cu2+, Fe3+) that promote oxidation, thus passivating metal ions that promote oxidation. The dosage of the synergist is generally 1/4-1/2 of that of the phenolic antioxidant.
The water in margarine, especially some substances in the water phase (such as whey powder), are particularly prone to microbial reproduction and growth. Preservatives are substances that kill microorganisms or inhibit their reproduction.
Salt is both a flavoring agent and an excellent preservative. Salt storage should be careful to prevent contamination and moisture-proof.
2．山梨酸钾 Potassium sorbate
Colorless or white scaly crystals or powder, odorless or slightly smelly, unstable in the air, can be colored by oxidation, hygroscopic, easily soluble in water, has an inhibitory effect on mold, yeast and aerostatic bacteria, is an acidic preservative, should be used in the PH value of 5-6 below the range. Pay attention to moisture-proof and sealing when storing.
1.β－胡萝卜素 Beta carotene
β-carotene is an ideal natural pigment, which has the advantages of low price, nutrition and color stability. Reddish purple to dark red crystalline powder, slightly heteroodor, insoluble in water and glycerol, insoluble in ethanol, acetone, solubility of 0.05-0.10% in vegetable oil at 240℃. Beta-carotene is unstable to both light and oxygen and becomes lighter in color when exposed to heavy metal ions such as Fe3+. Storage should be placed in a cool place, and pay attention to shading, airtight.
Red or dark red powder, odorless, red in water, insoluble in oil, light resistance, good acid resistance, heat resistance, reducing resistance, poor bacterial resistance, alkali turn brown. Strong hygroscopic property, should be stored in dry, cool place, long-term storage, should pay attention to seal, moisture-proof, anti-deterioration.
3.柠檬黄 Lemon yellow
Orange yellow powder, odorless, 0.1% water solution yellow, insoluble in oil, heat resistance, acid resistance, salt resistance are good, oxygen resistance, alkali resistance is poor, turn red when alkali. Storage precautions are the same as carmine.
（六）风味添加剂 Flavor agent
Food flavor is made of a variety of spices and diluents with high safety, which can be divided into two categories: oil soluble and water soluble. Most of them exist in clear and transparent liquid, but the oil soluble essence with refined vegetable oil as diluent will condense at low temperature. All flavors have a certain volatility, storage should pay attention to be placed in a cool place (10-30℃ is appropriate), and pay attention to sunscreen, moisture-proof, fire prevention. Flavor after opening, should not continue to store, it is best to use up. Heat sensitive material, pay attention to the input time, and pay attention to make it evenly distributed in the material.
As mentioned before, salt is both a preservative and a flavor regulator. It has the function of preservative, but also has the function of making the cream salty. In winter, the melting point of raw oil is lower and the amount of salt added is less. In summer, the melting point of raw oil is higher and the amount of salt is more. Salt should be stored against moisture.
3．乳清粉 Whey mist
Whey powder is added to margarine to enhance its flavor. The main component of whey powder is protein, which is changeable and irreversible under certain conditions. Special attention should be paid to it in storage and use. Specific influencing factors are as follows:
(1) Chemical factors: acid, base, organic solvent, heavy metal salts, surfactants, etc.
(2) Physical factors: heating (high temperature), ultraviolet, ultrasonic, intense agitation, oscillation, extrusion, various rays.
Butterfat is natural cream, added to increase the nutrition and flavor of margarine. Store in a cool, cool and dry place.
（七）消泡剂――乳化硅油 Deformer-Silicone emulsion
In the production of food frying, sometimes there will be a lot of foam, if not timely defoaming, the oil or foam will overflow from the container, hinder the operation, and even cause production accidents. Emulsified silicone oil is added to the “KFC” frying oil produced by our company, which makes use of its defoaming effect.
Emulsified silicone oil is milky white oil liquid, its viscosity is not affected by temperature, non-flammable, non-volatile in the air, stable property, non-toxic, odorless, soluble in water.
第四节 特种油脂行业的发展前景 Development prospect of special oil industry
The special oil market is developing rapidly. For the consumer goods used with automobiles, lubricating oil has been gradually transformed into common consumer products. Now with the improvement of mechanization level, the development of lubricating oil industry is also rising. The higher the degree of mechanization, the higher the utilization rate of lubricating oil, the prospect is bright, the development of lubricating oil industry market will be stable growth.
China’s special oil industry needs to give full play to the advantages of strong scientific research and technology, grasp the international development trend, and constantly improve the relevant standards of special oil products. For example, China’s electric power industry rarely implements SH0040-91 ultra-high voltage transformer oil standards, and most of them adopt imported oil that meets international standards. Chinese special oil enterprises will face broad market demand and usher in better opportunities.
Post time: Dec-25-2022